Computing Languages Overview
Computer languages can be categorized into three types.
- Machine Languages
- Low Level Languages
- Structured Languages
It is a machine language of 0’s and 1’s and is the most flexible of all languages, but machine dependent and not portable
It is a low level language of 0’s and 1’s but mnemonic codes are assigned for ease of learning.
Like cp=10010000 to copy data.
The Structured languages use three structures for writing programming code.
- Sequence structure
- Loop Structure
- Decision Structure
Every modern language uses above three structures with difference in syntax.
They are near to human language instructions usually in English.
In sequence structure the code lines are executed or run in sequence or order line by line.
For example BASIC Language code to display name on screen.
Print “Please Enter your name:” Input $name
Print “My Name is ” $name
In Loop Structure the program lines are executed for specified times until a condition is true
For X=1 to 100
The above code will be executed until X variable value is greater than 100.
Here FOR structure is used some languages uses DO WHILE or WHILE structure for loop.
Decision Structure is for decision making.
For example the below code will take input from screen and display information upon input analysis.
Here IF structure is used
Print “Please your marital status S for single and M for married “
IF $STATUS=”S” THEN Print “Single”
IF $STATUS=”M” THEN PRINT “Married”
Print “Not Valid Entry”
There are many structured languages few of them are:
It stands for Beginners all purposes instructions code language.
It is English like language for easy understanding of beginners for various tasks like gaming, business and mathematical problems.
Used for engineering and scientific calculations
Stands for Formula Translation used for engineering and scientific calculations
Stands for Common Business Oriented Language used for business applications
Developed by Bell lab used for system software development
An extension of C Language uses OOP or object oriented programming for Application and system software.
OOP technology uses class structures for development as it uses existing codes/classes for re-use rather than to develop new one to reduce development time. Objects have properties and methods to handle them.
Extension of BASIC Language uses OOP designed for application development.
It is like C++ designed to develop web page development and make them interactive through database linkages.
Stands for Hyper Text Markup Language used for web page development.
Developed for Internet based applications.
Developed for Internet based server side applications
Stands for List processing developed for robotics.
All languages except machine language needs compilers to convert programming code into machine language of 1’s and 0’s understandable to machines.
Every language has its compiler made to convert it into machine code.
Some Languages uses interpreters and assembly language uses assembler to do these tasks.